The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.
Chemical Crystallography is a use of diffraction methods to the investigation of basic science. An incessant reason for existing is the recognizable proof of common items, or of the results of manufactured science tests; however point by point sub-atomic geometry, intermolecular collaborations and supreme designs can likewise be considered. Structures can be examined as an element of temperature, weight or the utilization of electromagnetic radiation, or attractive or electric field: such studies involves just little minority of the aggregate. The utilization of single precious stone X beam diffraction to decide the structure of a concoction compound has been generally delegated 'Substance Crystallography'. The strategies, the exactness in analyses combined with the modem PC contraptions and advances in innovation makes this branch of science an unequivocal supplier of precise and exact estimations of sub-atomic measurements. Structure assurance by powder diffraction, precious stone designing, charge thickness examination and studies on atoms in energized states are the late additional items.
- Track 1-1Engineering of Crystalline and Non-crystalline Solids
- Track 1-2Structure and Properties of Functional Materials
- Track 1-3Metal-organic Frameworks and Organic: Inorganic Hybrid Materials
- Track 1-4Reactions and Dynamics in the Solid State
- Track 1-5Small Molecule Crystallography: Novel Structures and General Interest
- Track 1-6Chemical Crystallography: General Interest
Precious stones are generally connected with having normally grown, level and smooth outer countenances. It has for quite some time been perceived that this confirmation of outside normality is identified with the consistency of inside structure. Diffraction strategies are presently accessible which give substantially more data about the inside structure of precious stones, and it is perceived that interior request can exist with no outside confirmation for it.
- Track 2-1Chemical shift interaction
- Track 2-2Computational Crystallography
- Track 2-3Industrial Crystallization
- Track 2-4Functional Crystals
- Track 2-5Organic & Inorganic Crystals
- Track 2-6Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs)
- Track 2-7Biomacromolecules
- Track 2-8Supramolecular Crystallography
- Track 2-9Pharmaceutical Co-crystals
- Track 2-102D Crystal Engineering
- Track 2-11Porous and Liquid Crystals
- Track 2-12Nuclear Magnetic Resonance methods
- Track 2-13Polymer Crystallisation
- Track 2-14Powder diffraction
It ought to be obvious that all matter is made of iotas. From the intermittent table, it can be seen that there are just around 100 various types of molecules in the whole Universe. These same 100 molecules shape a great many distinctive substances running from the air we inhale to the metal used to bolster tall structures. Metals carry on uniquely in contrast to pottery, and earthenware production act uniquely in contrast to polymers. The properties of matter rely on upon which iotas are utilized and how they are fortified together.The structure of materials can be grouped by the general extent of different elements being considered. The three most basic real grouping of basic, recorded for the most part in expanding size, are: Atomic structure, which incorporates highlights that can't be seen, for example, the sorts of holding between the particles, and the way the iotas are organized. Microstructure, which incorporates highlights that can be seen utilizing a magnifying instrument, however sometimes with the stripped eye. Macrostructure, which incorporates highlights that can be seen with the exposed eye.
The nuclear structure basically influences the substance, physical, warm, electrical, attractive, and optical properties. The microstructure and macrostructure can likewise influence these properties yet they for the most part largely affect mechanical properties and on the rate of concoction response. The properties of a material offer intimations with regards to the structure of the material. The quality of metals proposes that these molecules are held together by solid bonds. In any case, these bonds should likewise permit molecules to move since metals are additionally typically formable. To comprehend the structure of a material, the sort of particles present, and how the iotas are organized and fortified must be known. We should first take a gander at nuclear holding.
- Track 3-1Liquid Crystals
- Track 3-2Metals and Alloys
- Track 3-3Ceramics and Polymers
- Track 3-4Thin films
- Track 3-5Quasicrystals
- Track 3-6Amorphous Materials
- Track 3-7Nanomaterials and Molecular crystals
- Track 3-8Structure of interfaces
- Track 3-9Novel crystallization strategies for XFEL studies
- Track 3-10Bulk Nitride Crystals
Crystalline solids exhibit a periodic crystal structure. The positions of atoms or molecules occur on repeating fixed distances, determined by the unit cell parameters. However, the arrangement of atoms or molecules in most crystalline materials is not perfect. The regular patterns are interrupted by crystallographic defects.
- Track 4-1Point Defects
- Track 4-2Line Defects
- Track 4-3Planar Defects
- Track 4-4Bulk Defects
- Track 4-5Defects, doping and positron annihilation
Basic science can help us to see a portion of the detail missing from this view and thusly is an intense device to unpick the complex and lovely choreography of life. For quite a long time, we have possessed the capacity to picture structures inside a cell, yet even the most intense magnifying instruments are constrained in the detail they give, either by the sheer physical limits of amplification, or in light of the fact that the examples themselves are not alive and working. Auxiliary science strategies dive underneath these points of confinement breathing life into particles in 3D and into keener core interest. It scopes to the very furthest reaches of how an atom functions and how its capacity can be adjusted. The way toward deciding sub-atomic structure can be long and disappointing – here and there taking years. Generally, proteins are the objectives for structure investigation as these are the principle "doing" particles of the cell. Proteins are worked from a DNA layout and the string of amino acids subsequently combined overlay into extremely complex circles, sheets and curls – it may appear like a tangle, yet this structure directs how the protein will communicate with different structures around it keeping in mind the end goal to attempt its obligations in the phone. The exquisite structures of particles and the buildings they shape can be amazing in their rationale and symmetry, yet they are additionally incomparable in helping us to see how cells really function. All of a sudden shapes, sizes and congregations of atoms can be doled out to different compartments in cells and put into setting with their encompassing surroundings. A key point of basic cell science is to manufacture a scene representation of cell capacity. The emanant picture will be much the same as a modern and element city where sub-atomic connections are fashioned and broken, short-or extensive and all are formed by the certainty of cell proliferation, maturing and passing.
- Track 5-1Membrane Proteins
- Track 5-2Macromolecular Complexes and Assemblies
- Track 5-3New tools and methods in structural biology
- Track 5-4Structural plasticity of proteins
- Track 5-5Hot Structures in Biology
- Track 5-6Structural biology of signalling pathways
It can supplement X ray-beam crystallography for investigations of small crystals (<0.1 micrometers), both inorganic, natural, and proteins, for example, layer proteins, that can't undoubtedly frame the substantial 3-dimensional precious stones required for that procedure. Protein structures are generally decided from either 2-dimensional gems (sheets or helices), polyhedrons, for example, viral capsids, or scattered individual proteins. Electrons can be utilized as a part of these circumstances, while X ray-beams can't, on account of electrons interface more emphatically with molecules than X-beams do. In this way, X-beams will go through a thin 2-dimensional precious stone without diffracting altogether, though electrons can be utilized to shape a picture.
On the other hand, the solid communication amongst electrons and protons makes thick gems impenetrable to electrons, which just enter short separations. One of the primary troubles in X ray-beam crystallography is deciding stages in the diffraction design. On account of the unpredictability of X-beam focal points, it is hard to frame a picture of the gem being diffracted, and subsequently stage data is lost. Luckily, electron magnifying instruments can resolve nuclear structure in genuine space and the crystallographic structure calculate stage data can be tentatively decided from a pictures Fourier change.
- Track 6-1Microscopic Techniques
- Track 6-2Inorganic Crystal Studies
- Track 6-3Structural Determinations
- Track 6-4Mass Spectrometry
- Track 6-5Fluorescence Anisotropy
- Track 6-6Chemical Modifications
- Track 6-7Molecular Docking
- Track 6-8Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM)
X-beams are utilized to examine the basic properties of solids, fluids or gels. Photons interface with electrons, and give data about the vacillations of electronic densities in the matter. A run of the mill test set-up is appeared on Figure 1: a monochromatic light emission wave vector ki is chosen and falls on the specimen. The scattered power is gathered as a component of the alleged dissipating point 2θ. Versatile cooperation’s are described by zero vitality exchanges, with the end goal that the last wave vector kf is equivalent in modulus to ki. The applicable parameter to examine the collaboration is the force exchange or diffusing vector q=ki-kf, characterized by:
The scattered force I(q) is the Fourier Transform of g(r), the connection capacity of the electronic thickness r(r), which compares to the likelihood to discover a scatterer at position r in the specimen if another scatterer is situated at position 0 : flexible x-beam dissipating tests uncover the spatial relationships in the example. Little edge diffusing analyses are intended to quantify I(q) at little scrambling vectors q»(4p/l)q, with 2q going from couple of small scale radians to a ten of radians, to examine frameworks with trademark sizes running from crystallographic separations (few Å) to colloidal sizes (up to couple of microns).
- Track 7-1Nanocrystallography
- Track 7-2Recent Developments in Crystal Growth
- Track 7-3Crystal growth kinetics and mechanisms
- Track 7-4Crystallization techniques
- Track 7-5Crystal morphology
- Track 7-6Diamonds growth
- Track 7-7Oragnic Crystal Scintillators
- Track 7-8Phase Transitions: seeding, growth, transport
- Track 7-9Melt Growth 1: hydrodynamic concepts, external fields
- Track 7-10Melt Growth 2: microgravity and modelling
- Track 7-11Aqueous solution, ammonothermal growth
- Track 7-12Growth from melt solution, liquid phase epitaxy
The scope for in situ diffraction experiments has increased enormously over recent years as more intense sources of X-rays and neutrons have enabled experiments to be carried out on smaller samples or faster transformations, or in environments with poor access to the probe. Pannetier and his colleagues are studying chemical and structural changes that occur inside a solid-state battery as it discharges and the cell reaction proceeds. Neutron diffraction provides a direct probe of these processes in real time in the chemical environment most relevant to the problem.
- Track 8-1Time Resolved Diffraction
Precession electron diffraction (PED) is a specialized method to collect electron diffraction patterns in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). By rotating (precessing) a tilted incident electron beam around the central axis of the microscope, a PED pattern is formed by integration over a collection of diffraction conditions. This produces a quasi-kinematical diffraction pattern that is more suitable as input into direct methods algorithms to determine the crystal structure of the sample.
- Track 9-1Quasi-kinematical diffraction patterns
- Track 9-2Broader range of measured reflections
- Track 9-3Practical robustness
- Track 9-4Symmetry determination
- Track 9-5Direct methods in crystallography
- Track 9-6Ab Initio structure determination
- Track 9-7Automated diffraction tomography
Europe accounted for 33% market share in global nanotechnology market revenue in 2015 after Americas region and is forecast to grow at a CAGR of 15.6% to reach $3.98 billion by 2021. APAC region is projected to grow at a rate of 20.9% CAGR during the forecast period 2016-2021.The analysis report informs that the global nanoparticle market is expected to reach USD 91.1 million by 2020 at a CAGR of 5.4% from 2015-2020. The market growth is being improved due to the increased emphasis on Nano technological research and funding provided by the government to carry out the R&D in this domain. The markets of China, Brazil, India and South Africa are attaining high growth prospective for the companies involved in R&D of nanotechnology and nanoparticle analyzing instruments distribution.
Nuclear magnetic resonance crystallography (NMR crystallography) is a method which utilizes primarily NMR spectroscopy to determine the structure of solid materials on the atomic scale. Thus, solid-state NMR spectroscopy would be used primarily, possibly supplemented by quantum chemistry calculations (e.g. density functional theory), powder diffraction etc. If suitable crystals can be grown, any crystallographic method would generally be preferred to determine the crystal structure comprising in case of organic compounds the molecular structures and molecular packing. The main interest in NMR crystallography is in microcrystalline materials which are amenable to this method but not to X-ray, neutron and electron diffraction. This is largely because interactions of comparably short range are measured in NMR crystallography.
- Track 11-1Dipolar interaction
- Track 11-2Noncovalent interactions
- Track 11-3Solid-State NMR
- Track 11-4Crystal Structure Refinements
- Track 11-5Chemical shift interaction
Polymer crystals have different properties than simple atomic crystals. They possess high density and long range order. They do not possess isotropy, and therefore are anisotopic in nature, which means they show anisotropy and limited conformation space. However, just as atomic crystals have lattices, polymer crystals also exhibit a periodic structure called a lattice, which describes the repetition of the unit cells in the space. The simulation of polymer crystals is complex and not taken from only one state but from solid-state and fluid-state physics as well. Polymer crystals have unit cells that consist of tens of atoms, while the molecules themselves comprise 104 To 106 atoms.
- Track 12-1Optimization method
- Track 12-2Sampling method
- Track 12-3Chain-folded lamellae
- Track 12-4Gibbs-Thomson equation: Melting of polymer crystals
- Track 12-5Mechanism of chain unfolding upon Annealing
- Track 12-6Synthesis of aqueous dispersion of polyethylene nanocrystals
X-beam free-electron lasers (XFELs) open up new potential outcomes for X-beam crystallographic and spectroscopic investigations of radiation-touchy natural examples under near physiological conditions. To encourage these new X-beam sources, customized test strategies and information preparing conventions must be created. The profoundly radiation-touchy photosystem II (PSII) protein complex is a prime focus for XFEL tests intending to concentrate on the instrument of light-actuated water oxidation occurring at a Mn bunch in this complex. We built up an arrangement of instruments for the investigation of PSII at XFELs, including another fluid fly in view of electrofocusing, a vitality dispersive von Hamos X-beam emanation spectrometer for the hard X-beam extend and a high-throughput delicate X-beam spectrometer in light of a reflection zone plate. While our prompt center is on PSII, the techniques we portray here are appropriate to an extensive variety of metalloenzymes. These exploratory advancements were supplemented by another product suite, cctbx.xfel. This product suite considers close constant checking of the exploratory parameters and identifier signals and the itemized examination of the diffraction and spectroscopy information gathered by us at the Linac Coherent Light Source, considering the particular attributes of information measured at a XFEL.
- Track 13-1Advances in X-ray and Neutron Crystallography
- Track 13-2Synchrotron Radiation Application
- Track 13-3Hybrid/Integrative Methods in Biological Structure Analysis
- Track 13-4Electron Diffraction in Crystallography
- Track 13-5Bio-imaging
- Track 13-6Laser physics and applications
Crystallography method has been a broadly utilized device for illustration of mixes present in drain and different sorts of data acquired through structure work relationship. Albeit more point by point data from X-beam investigation has been secured from substances which are normally known to be crystalline, it has been amazing to discover substances generally considered as being non-crystalline as really having a halfway crystalline structure and that this structure can be changed by warmth treatment, weight, extending, and so forth. Casein is a case of the last class of proteins. Stewart has demonstrated that even arrangements have a tendency to accept a methodical game plan of gatherings inside the arrangement. Consequently, fluid drain ought to, and shows some sort of course of action. The mineral constituent and lactose are the main genuine crystalline constituents in dairy items that can be investigated by X-beam; in any case, intriguing basic changes have been seen in butterfat, drain powder, casein and cheddar.
- Track 14-1High-Resolution Charge Density Studies
- Track 14-2Semiconductors and Insulators
- Track 14-3Pre-clinical imaging
- Track 14-4Small molecule crystallography
- Track 14-5Spectroscopy at Fusion Reactors
- Track 14-6Surface Stress Measurements
- Track 14-7Resonance Diffraction
- Track 14-8Photo-Crystallography
Neutron diffraction or elastic neutron scattering is the application of neutron scattering to the determination of the atomic and/or magnetic structure of a material. A sample to be examined is placed in a beam of thermal or cold neutrons to obtain a diffraction pattern that provides information of the structure of the material. The technique is similar to X-ray diffraction but due to their different scattering properties, neutrons and X-rays provide complementary information: X-Rays are suited for superficial analysis, strong x-rays from synchrotron radiation are suited for shallow depths or thin specimens, while neutrons having high penetration depth are suited for bulk samples.
- Track 15-1Nuclear scattering
- Track 15-2Magnetic scattering
- Track 15-3Hydrogen, null-scattering and contrast variation
Neutrons are subatomic particles released in nuclear fission. They have no electrical charge and penetrate materials more effectively than X-rays. This ability makes neutrons an especially useful tool in industrial materials analysis.
Neutron scattering is a technique used to find answers to fundamental questions about the structure and composition of materials used in medicine, mining, transportation, building, engineering, food processing and scientific research.
Neutrons penetrate most materials to depths of several centimetres. In comparison, X-rays and electrons probe only near the surface.
X-rays and electrons are scattered by atomic electrons whereas neutrons are scattered by atomic nuclei. This results in a number of differences, perhaps the most important being in the scattering from light elements. Whereas one electron on a hydrogen atom can be hard to find by X-ray or electron diffraction, the hydrogen nucleus scatters neutrons strongly and is easily found in a neutron diffraction experiment.
Neutrons, though electrically neutral, act as small magnets, and are uniquely powerful in the atomic scale study of magnetism.
Neutrons are also uniquely suited to the study of the dynamic processes (e.g. thermal vibrations) in solids.
Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules, especially amino and nucleic acids, how they acquire the structures they have, and how alterations in their structures affect their function. This subject is of great interest to biologists because macromolecules carry out most of the functions of cells, and only by coiling into specific three-dimensional shapes that they are able to perform these functions. This architecture, the "tertiary structure" of molecules, depends in a complicated way on the molecules' basic composition, or "primary structures."
Hemoglobin, the oxygen transporting protein found in red blood cells
Biomolecules are too small to see in detail even with the most advanced light microscopes. The methods that structural biologists use to determine their structures generally involve measurements on vast numbers of identical molecules at the same time.
- Track 17-1Mass spectrometry
- Track 17-2Macromolecular crystallography
- Track 17-3Proteolysis
- Track 17-4Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins (NMR)
- Track 17-5Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)
- Track 17-6Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM)
- Track 17-7Multiangle light scattering
- Track 17-8Small angle scattering
- Track 17-9Ultrafast laser spectroscopy